TERMS AND CONDITIONS
1. Payment and Booking Responsibilities
1.1 In the context of booking services, the term ‘Client’ pertains to any individual initiating a reservation. When there is a group consisting of two or more passengers, this individual will automatically assume the role of the ‘lead passenger’ and will be responsible for all individuals traveling under the same booking.
1.2 The Client, on behalf of each member of the booking party, acknowledges and accepts these booking conditions. The lead passenger will serve as the primary point of contact for all information and matters related to the booking, including payment.
1.3 Payment options with Swiss Airport Cab, here in after referred to as the company, are as follows:
- Online: If you are booking via the website or email, please ensure that all details are accurate and utilize the “Pay Now” link provided in the confirmation email. Please note that the booking is not considered confirmed until full payment is made. When booking an excursion with GVA Excursions, payment must be made online or via the payment link sent to you prior to travel.
- Phone: Payment can be made over the phone with one of the company’s sales agents. Accepted payment methods include Visa, Mastercard, or Amex (Amex payments will be charged in CHF). Upon successful payment, the client will receive an e-ticket.
- Payment Link: Our customer service team can send a payment link to the client via email. This link will remain valid for one hour after the booking is made. If the link expires, the client should email email@example.com to request a new link. Failure to do so will result in automatic cancellation of the reservation. Successful payment will result in the issuance of a confirmed E-ticket.
If no pre-payment is made for the booking, it will not be considered confirmed, and the company retains the right to cancel the booking at any time.
All unpaid bookings will be automatically canceled after 7 calendar days. The company bears no responsibility or liability for last-minute cancellations due to lack of prepayment.
1.4 Please note that pending booking fares will only be held for 7 days. If the ticket remains unpaid, price changes may be applied after one week from the booking date.
1.5 In cases where amendments to the booking are necessary, and fare changes are involved after the initial booking, the company will provide written confirmation of these changes via email (provided the client has supplied an email address). If the client chooses not to accept the fare change, the company will cancel the booking and follow the refund policy period. Amendments made less than 48 hours before the travel date must be requested by phone.
1.6 It is the client’s responsibility to verify the booking details as stated on their confirmed e-ticket. The company will not be held accountable for any errors made during the booking process via telephone or email.
1.7 Please be aware that any bank or credit card charges incurred by the client when reserving services with the company are the responsibility of the client. These charges may vary from bank to bank and may depend on the currency used. The company accepts no liability for any incurred charges.
1.8 Upon request, receipts will be sent via email to clients.
1.9 Clients with previously established accounts with the company may opt to be invoiced for the services provided. All invoices must be settled in accordance with the terms specified on the invoice. Failure to do so may result in additional charges.
2. Booking and Service Terms
2.1 For both the outbound and return journeys, the booking confirmation email or e-ticket must be presented to the driver in either electronic or paper format. Failure to provide an e-ticket upon request may result in the client being unable to board the transfer.
Upon making a booking, whether through telephone or email, the customer acknowledges and accepts the company’s Terms and Conditions.
2.2 Modifications to bookings can be made online at https: swissairportcab.com find or in writing via email to firstname.lastname@example.org
Please note that any requested booking modifications are subject to availability. Changes to a standard ticket will incur an additional cost.
Modification Requests for Shared Excursions: 0-48 Hours Before Travel:
Within 48 hours of travel, no modifications can be made to a client’s booking for shared excursions. Any increases in passenger numbers are subject to availability and will necessitate a new separate booking at the current price. Limited changes can be made to the booking on the same day, including altering the client’s booking date, subject to the discretion of Swiss Airport Cab.
In the event of a date change with this notice period, our official cancellation policy will apply.
2.3 Modification Requests for Private Transfers and Excursions: 0-24 Hours Before Travel:
Within 24 hours of travel for private transfers and excursions, modifications can be made to a client’s booking, but increases in passenger numbers remain subject to availability. No changes can be made to the booking on the same day, including altering a client’s transfer time, date, or drop-off location for both arrival and departure transfers.
2.4 The company does not provide credit for any bookings. If clients wish to reschedule for a later date, they must cancel their original booking and create a new one. If clients intend to change the date of their transfer, the company must receive more than 7 days’ notice; otherwise, the standard cancellation policy will apply.
2.5 Clients are responsible for providing a functioning mobile contact telephone number at the time of booking. This phone should be switched on and operational during travel and throughout their stay in the resort. The company must be able to contact the client at all times. The company bears no responsibility for any issues arising in the delivery of the transfer service due to the client’s failure to do so.
2.6 The company accepts no liability for incorrect information provided by a client that results in missed flights or transfers. This applies to phone bookings, email bookings, and online bookings.
2.7 Clients are fully responsible for accurately stating their flight arrival and departure times to ensure correct collection times. (Collection times are based on flight times, not flight numbers, in the booking system.)
2.8 Clients must provide a valid address within the borders of the selected resort, including street name and road number. Addresses outside the resort’s borders will not be serviced. Please be aware that the booking system may automatically confirm an address, as it does not detect incorrect or out-of-resort addresses. Once such a mistake is identified, the booking will be canceled if the address is not within the resort, and additional charges may apply.
2.9 If a client fails to provide a complete or correct address, the driver will attempt to locate the accommodation for a maximum of 20 minutes for private transfers.
2.10 After this period, the client will be dropped off at the resort tourist office, whether it is open or closed. For departure transfers, if no accommodation details are received or invalid ones are provided, and the company cannot reach the client, the booking will be canceled with no refund.
2.11 All standard quotes provided by Swiss Airport Cab and Excursions are valid for 24 hours. After this time, a new quote must be obtained. All quotes are subject to change and final approval by the Swiss Airport Cab management team.
2.12 For vehicles with malfunctioning air-conditioning or Wi-Fi on the day of travel, GVA Excursions offers no refund or credit for the transfer or trip.
2.13. If the Aiguille du Midi Cable car is closed due to adverse weather, repairs, or client preference not to use it, GVA Excursions will not issue refunds for tickets.
2.14 In the event of works or closures at any of GVA Excursions’ attractions, the company is not liable for pre-booked tickets or itinerary changes in its tours. However, upon request, the company can provide a letter of insurance to the client.
2.15 For tours using open-top or retractable-roof vehicles, in the event of bad weather, the roof may be closed. If the bus requires maintenance and is unavailable for the booked tour, clients will be transferred to standard vehicles for their tour and issued a partial refund for their tickets. If clients no longer wish to travel, a full refund can be requested and will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.
3. Cancellations and Refunds
3.1 All refund requests or cancellations need to be done in writing and sent via email to email@example.com.
The company refund policy is as follows:
- Notice Period 0 to 2 days -0% refund
- Notice Period 3 to 7 days – 50% refund given
- Notice Period more than 7 days – 100% refund given
Refund Policy Details:
3.2 The refund percentage is calculated based on the original ticket price, and it does not apply to extra charges for additional luggage and seat options. Once you have booked your transfer, any additional fees for items such as extra bags, ski bags, or baby seats are non-refundable.
Extra stops added to private transfers are also non-refundable.
Refunds will be processed within 8 weeks from the date when the refund request was approved. Refunds will be returned via the original payment method used. If you made the payment through a Bank Transfer, please provide your complete bank details, including IBAN, SWIFT, and address, to facilitate the refund process.
3.3 For excursions or tours, refunds can only be processed for payments made online. This can be done within 1 week of requesting the refund, provided that applicable notice is given for cancellation or changes. Please note that for bookings made through hotels and partners of Swiss Airport Cab, the refund process may take up to 8 weeks.
3.4 In the event that the air-conditioning or Wi-Fi in any vehicles is not functioning on the day of travel, Swiss Airport Cab will not offer a refund or credit for the affected transfer or trip.
3.5 If the Aiguille du Midi Cable car is closed due to adverse weather conditions, repairs, or the client chooses not to use it for other reasons, Swiss Airport Cab will not issue refunds for the purchased tickets.
3.6 In cases of construction or closures affecting any of the Swiss Airport Cab attractions, the company is not responsible for pre-booked tickets or changes to the itinerary on its tours. However, upon request, Swiss Airport Cab is willing to provide a letter of insurance to the client if needed.
4 Luggage Policy:
4.1 All luggage must be clearly labeled with the client’s name and destination address. The company cannot accept responsibility for customers who mistakenly take incorrect luggage from the vehicle. It is essential that all luggage is accompanied by a passenger. In the event that the owner is not present, the company will handle the luggage.
4.2 The company will exercise all reasonable care when loading and transporting luggage. Clients must remain with their luggage until it is loaded onto the bus. We do not assume liability for lost or damaged luggage or items during transit. Clients are strongly advised to review the terms of their travel insurance policy.
4.3 Our standard luggage allowances are as follows:
- 1 piece of hand luggage per passenger at no additional cost.
- 1 piece of checked luggage (weighing under 23 kg) with a charge of €1.00 per passenger.
- 1 set of skis or a snowboard with a charge of €4.00 per passenger.
- 1 bicycle in a box or carry case is allowed at a charge of €10.00 per passenger.
Any additional luggage will incur a fee of €15.00. All additional items must be declared at the time of booking.
4.4 For the comfort and safety of all passengers, any “oversized” luggage must be declared at the time of booking. Failure to declare oversized luggage in advance may result in additional charges equivalent to the cost of an extra seat in the vehicle. If there is insufficient space to transport the luggage safely, the company reserves the right to refuse transportation.
4.5 Fees for additional luggage must be paid before loading it into the vehicle. Payment can be made either at our desk or by contacting our customer service team at +41 77 952 05 48. If such luggage has not been declared at the time of booking and there is insufficient space available in the vehicle, we will be unable to transport it. In any case, we cannot be held responsible for delays or damages caused by the handling of this luggage.
4.6 In the event that a client has excess luggage at the airport, the company reserves the right to charge an excess baggage fee or refuse to transport the items or the clients. The excess luggage fee is €45.00.
4.7 The company offers free transportation of folding manual wheelchairs, provided that this is specified in the booking prior to travel. Please note that we are unable to assist clients in moving to and from the vehicle. If a client requires assistance for boarding and disembarking, this must be arranged by the client. Failure to provide assistance may result in the company refusing transport.
4.8 If luggage is forgotten in the vehicle, the client must notify the company via email at the following address: firstname.lastname@example.org. The client is responsible for arranging courier pickup of the forgotten luggage or items at their own cost and responsibility. If an item forgotten during a transfer is not claimed within 4 weeks of the transfer, the company reserves the right to dispose of it, destroy it, or donate it to charity.
5. Carriage of children and minors
5.1 Laws regarding the use of child seats for infants and children vary between countries, and the company adheres to local legislation. The EU directive 2003/20/EC specifies that children must use an appropriate child seat until they reach 12 years of age or a height of 135 cm.
5.2 The safety of our young passengers is a top priority, and we want to emphasize the following:
It is illegal for babies and children to travel on the lap of an adult. The company can provide suitable child seats if specified during booking.
All of our child seats are reversible. Therefore, we recommend parents traveling with infants under 1 year to bring their own. The company will provide standard issue baby seats based on the reservation request. Clients needing non-standard equipment are advised to provide their own.
Children up to 3 years of age must be seated in an appropriate child seat that can be secured with a 2-point seat belt. If the client has not booked a baby seat with the company, parents must bring their own child car seat with a seat belt adapter. This responsibility lies with the parent, and passengers without the required child seat will be denied boarding.
Children up to 10 years must always be accompanied by an adult.
Children between 10 and 15 years can travel alone with a declaration of consent from their parent or guardian. Please note that our bus drivers cannot provide supervision for children.
From the age of 16, children may travel alone without any restrictions. Ensure that your child possesses all necessary documents and identification papers.
The correct size of the baby seat must be requested, and the child’s age/weight must be provided. Here is a general guide for your convenience:
5.3 .Rear-facing baby seat: Group 0, suitable for up to 13 kg (29 lbs), approximately birth to 12-15 months.
Front-facing child seat: Group 1/2/3, suitable for 9-25 kg (20-40 lbs), approximately 9 months to 4 years.
Booster cushion: Group 3/4, suitable for 22-36 kg (48-79 lbs), approximately 6-11/12 years.
An additional fee is applicable when the company provides baby seats.
5.4 Failure to request an appropriate child seat during booking will result in our inability to provide the transfer. In such cases, no refund will be provided for any persons in the booking, and an alternative transfer will not be offered.
5.5 Babies and children are required to pay the full seat price, allocated based on the selection made on the online booking form. In case of disputes regarding the suitability of the seat, the company will not be held responsible for differences of opinion. To avoid such situations, parents are encouraged to bring their own child seats.
5.8 Parents are responsible for correctly fitting child seat restraints in the vehicles.
5.9 Parents, guardians, or individuals over 18 years of age accompanying children and adolescents under 18 years of age are responsible for their conduct while in company vehicles. They will be held accountable for any damages caused by these minors.
6. Conditions of Travel:
6.1 Clients who cause damage to the interior of a van due to excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, or consumption of food and drink may be subject to an immediate fine of €150.00, payable directly to the company driver. If the client refuses to pay or lacks the means to do so, the driver will file a police report.
6.2 The company reserves the right to refuse transportation to any person believed to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs or whose behavior is deemed a threat to the driver, the vehicle, or other passengers. The company also reserves the right to cancel the return transfer of individuals denied boarding on their inbound transfer due to the described behavior.
6.3 Clients are responsible for the cost of any damage caused to a company vehicle. Failure to make payment may result in the company taking legal action against the involved customer(s).
6.4 Smoking, eating, drinking, and the consumption of alcohol are strictly prohibited in all company vehicles. Clients must remove all personal trash when exiting the vehicles. Failure to do so may result in the fine outlined in clause 6.1.
6.5 Clients must not engage in abusive or threatening behavior towards any staff member or fellow passengers. Clients displaying threatening, angry, or abusive conduct will have their ticket canceled immediately, and the company will not provide a refund for the original booking. The company will not be liable for any additional costs incurred by the client as a result of a canceled ticket.
6.6 The company does not allow pets to travel, primarily out of consideration for other passengers and the protection of our vehicles. Travel with pets in a private transfer is possible if the pet is in its own spill-proof carrier. Exceptions will be made for service dogs, but customers must provide the relevant supporting documents and notify the company in advance of travel.
6.7 Clients must wear their seat belts at all times.
6.8 In the event of force majeure, the company may need to explore alternative transportation options for customers. This decision will only be made when there is a significant risk to the customer and driver during the journey, and it will be at the sole discretion of the company’s management. Any additional transport costs incurred will be the responsibility of the customer, although the company will provide documentation to assist customers in claiming reimbursement from their travel insurance provider.
6.9 If the company driver is unable to reach a customer’s drop-off or pick-up point due to adverse weather, road conditions, or the transfer vehicle’s size, the customer may need to make their own way to a suitable and safe pickup location or complete the journey on foot or using other means of transportation. The company will not be liable for any additional costs incurred in this situation. Customers are encouraged to check their accommodation and resort information before traveling to be aware of any potential access issues.
6.10 Clients arriving or departing from the French side of Geneva airport must arrange their transportation to/from the Swiss side of the airport. Clients arriving or departing via Terminal 2 (charter flight) at Geneva airport must make their way to/from the main terminal’s arrival hall and meet our airport team and driver at our desk.
6.11 The company reserves the right to change the type of vehicle used for all transfers, including coaches, larger minibusses, and smaller vehicles, depending on the number of passengers (ranging from 2 to 50). If you have purchased PremiumPlus Tickets for private transfers and we are unable to provide the Mercedes Brand due to operational reasons, you will be refunded the difference between your original purchase price and the cost of a regular private transfer.
6.12 The company may require passengers to change vehicles during the booked transfer, as part of our Sustainability Action Plan to reduce our carbon footprint. This practice is considered normal on all transfers.
7. Conditions of Service:
7.1 The company schedules transfers to arrive at the airport no less than 1.5 hours before the flight departure time under normal conditions.
If clients wish to arrive at the airport with more time, the company must be notified at least 3 days before travel.
7.2 Clients who request to depart the resort later than the recommended time do so entirely at their own risk, and the company will not be held accountable for missed flights or additional costs resulting from this decision.
7.3 The company reserves the right to determine both arrival and departure times as follows:
On arrival, the transfer time is set approximately one hour after the flight arrival time provided by the client.
On departure from the resort, the company aims to get clients to the airport between 1.5 to 4 hours before their flight departs.
Changes to transfer times are subject to the following:
Changes over 2 hours will result in a voucher worth 4.50 CHF, redeemable at any partner bar or cafeteria.
Changes over 4 hours will result in a full refund for the client.
This policy does not apply to clients who miss their transfer due to a flight delay, cancellation, booking errors, or during inter-season months when transfers operate on a limited schedule.
7.4 The company will make efforts to keep the client informed of all changes, but these changes may occur suddenly in cases of unplanned events such as inclement weather, police controls, traffic, etc. If the new transfer time is inconvenient for the client, the company offers no compensation for additional costs incurred for alternative travel.
The company will not be liable for any delays caused by factors beyond its control (force majeure). The following examples illustrate such causes but are not limited to:
- Accidents on the route leading to vehicle delays.
- Exceptional or severe weather conditions.
- Compliance with police requests.
- Road accidents.
- Vandalism and acts of terrorism.
- Traffic delays, road closures, and diversions.
- Strikes by third parties.
Issues and delays caused by other customers.
- The vehicle being detained or delayed by a police officer or government official.
- Other circumstances affecting passenger safety.
- Road closures due to holidays or events.
- Properties inaccessible by the type of vehicle booked.
- Acts of God, floods, earthquakes, avalanches, or other natural disasters.
- Epidemics or pandemics.
- War, the threat of war, or similar situations.
- Fires or explosions.
- Terrorist attacks or riots.
7.5 The company is not responsible for flight delays. In the event of a flight being canceled or significantly delayed, the client is considered to have missed their booked transfer. If an alternative flight is arranged:
On the same day of traveling: a rescue fee may apply depending on your ticket type (refer to clause 2.3).
On a different day: the cost of a new booking will be incurred.
*If the next available transfer is on the following day, no compensation or liability for incurred costs will be provided by the company.
All subject to availability; no refund will be provided for the original booked ticket.
7.6 In the event of a flight delay, clients must go to the company transfer desk. The airport team will arrange the client’s transfer based on the purchased ticket type (refer to clause 2.3). This may result in a wait on arrival, transfer on the following day, sharing a vehicle with other passengers (for private transfers), or no available transfer for the client. If the client prefers not to wait for the next available transfer, they may arrange alternative transport at their own expense. No refund for the original booked transfer or compensation for additional costs incurred will be provided by the company.
Flight Delays on Private Transfers: Depending on availability, the company driver will wait for flight delays up to 1 hour after the originally scheduled flight arrival time. After 1 hour, clients may be subject to a wait on arrival or different types of service, with extra fees applied (please refer to clause 2.3).
7.8 If a new transfer cannot be provided, the client will be given a statement confirming that they were unable to travel on the original booking, which can be used for a travel insurance claim. No refund will be issued for the original ticket, and the company is not liable for any additional costs incurred.
7.9 In the event of a significant delay due to delayed or lost luggage, clients are requested to keep the company informed of the delay’s duration. For clients arriving at the airport, it is the airline or airline handling agent’s responsibility to deliver any lost luggage to the passenger.
7.10 Delayed Luggage on Private Transfers: The company will wait for a maximum of 30 minutes after the confirmed pickup time of the passengers in the event of delayed luggage. If the luggage has not arrived after this time, it becomes the responsibility of the client to arrange for the luggage’s transportation to their final destination, with additional waiting time incurring extra fees (please refer to clause 2.3).
7.11 The airline, not the company, is responsible for delivering lost luggage to the customer. If the transfer is missed due to airline luggage delay, no refund will be provided, and the standard delay terms and conditions (7.9) will apply. Any claims must be made with the relevant airline.
7.12 The company cannot guarantee that they can still provide the requested transfer, whether informed in advance of a flight or luggage delay or not.
7.13 Early Landing Flights: The company will strive to transport the client to the resort as soon as possible if the client’s flight lands early. However, any waiting time is based on the original transfer time.
7.14 Transfer Time Changes and Delays: If a client’s transfer time is altered, either to or from the resort, or if the vehicle is delayed, and the client chooses not to wait for the vehicle, they are free to arrange alternative transportation. However, the company will not provide a refund for the original booking or compensation if the delay falls within the normal wait times indicated in clause 7.3.
7.15 In the event that a customer is unable to take their transfer due to delayed, canceled, or missed flights and incurs additional costs arranging alternative travel, the company will provide a written statement upon request explaining the reason for these additional costs. However, the company will not be responsible for covering any of these additional costs, nor will it offer a refund for the originally booked service.
7.16 The company will not be responsible for arranging alternate travel for clients who miss their transfers on either arrival or departure. Nor will the company be liable for a refund of the original ticket or any new costs incurred.
7.17 Departure Transfers: If a client is not at the specified meeting point at the agreed time for a private transfer, the driver will wait for a maximum of 15 minutes. After this time, the client will be considered a ‘no-show,’ and the company will not provide a refund for the transfer or be responsible for any subsequent issues or costs resulting from the client’s failure to meet their transfer.
7.18 Diverted Flights: If a client’s flight is diverted to another airport, it is their responsibility to make their way to Geneva Airport. The company will not be responsible for arranging or providing transportation to Geneva Airport, and the standard flight delay policy will apply if transfers are missed (please refer to clause 7.8).
7.19 Out of Season Transfers: The company allows clients to book transfers during the Interseason and may outsource bookings to partner services
7.20 The company reserves the right to cancel a shared excursion if fewer than 4 passengers have booked the same excursion. Passengers affected by such cancellations will have the option to either rebook another shared excursion of their choice or book a private excursion by paying additional fees. If passengers are unable to find another suitable shared excursion or prefer a refund, they can request a refund by emailing the company at
8. Resort-Specific Terms
8.1 Clients are required to arrive at the pickup point at least 5 minutes before their scheduled pickup time. Clients should familiarize themselves with the location of their pickup point before their transfer or excursion. The company will not be held responsible if clients miss their transfer due to an inability to locate the pickup point.
8.2 The company is under no obligation to wait for clients who are late for their transfer, and no refunds will be provided if clients miss their transfer. As stated in clause 7.18, the company will not be liable for any costs incurred by clients who miss their transfer.
8.3 In cases where a resort is pedestrianized or has restricted parking areas, an alternative pickup point will be arranged. Any additional costs incurred by clients to reach these points will not be covered by the company.
8.4 Swiss Airport Cab is not obligated to wait for clients who are late for their transfer, and no refunds will be issued if clients miss their transfer. Swiss Airport Cab will also not be responsible for any additional costs incurred by clients due to missed transfers.
8.5 For shared Chamonix Day Trips, Swiss Airport Cab strives to adhere to the agreed timetable. However, occasional delays caused by traffic and external factors may occur. In such cases, delays of up to 1 hour are considered normal.
8.6 Swiss Airport Cab is not obligated to wait for clients who are late for their transfer, and no refunds will be provided if clients miss their transfer. Swiss Airport Cab will not be liable for any additional costs incurred by clients due to missed transfers.
For excursions and tours, the duration of the tours may vary depending on weather and traffic conditions. Tour durations provided are for guidance.
9. General Terms
9.1 Clients are strongly advised to have holiday/travel insurance. In the event of transfer delays leading to missed flights or other costly incidents, the company will not be held responsible for the costs incurred. However, the company will provide documentation to customers that can serve as proof to their insurance provider for potential reimbursement.
9.2 In unforeseen circumstances beyond the company’s control that would affect the company’s ability to provide transfers effectively, the company reserves the right to combine private and shared transfers, outsource transfers, or cancel transfers with short notice.
9.3 The company may outsource bookings to other licensed transport companies, doing so with suppliers of transfer services using reasonable skill and care. The company is not responsible for changes in fares with the new provider. When traveling with a Partner Company, passengers may be subject to changes in terms and other operating conditions.
9.4 In cases where clients have connections to make (such as bus, train, or other transportation), the company will not be held liable for any costs incurred due to missed or lost connections resulting from transfer delays or time changes.
9.5 The client’s statutory rights remain unaffected. The company ‘s terms and conditions are governed by Swiss Law. By accepting these terms and conditions, you are also accepting the specific terms related to the type of transfer you are booking, as detailed in the description of the transfer service shown at the quote stage of the booking process.
9.6 Any issues related to the services provided by Swiss Airport Cab should be submitted in writing via email to email@example.com. All feedback must be provided in writing. The company will make every effort to respond to all emails within seven days of receiving them.
9.7 As the well-being and safety of our passengers and drivers are our top priorities, we have implemented several measures to ensure safe vehicle travel. By making a booking with us, you acknowledge that you have read and agree to these Terms & Conditions.
9.8 It is your responsibility to ensure that you are fit for travel. Before making any travel plans, please check the entry and stay requirements specified by the relevant national authorities in your transit and destination countries.